# Examples¶

## A simple example to start from: x * (1 - x)¶

### The C program¶

Let us analyze the following function.

```
float f(float x)
{
assert(0 <= x && x <= 1);
return x * (1 - x);
}
```

This function computes the value `x * (1 - x)`

for an argument `x`

between 0 and 1. The `float`

type is meant to force the compiler to
use IEEE-754 single precision floating-point numbers. We also assume
that the default rounding mode is used: rounding to nearest number,
break to even on tie.

The function returns the value \(x \otimes (1 \ominus x)\) instead of the ideal value \(x \cdot (1 - x)\) due to the limited precision of the computations. If we rule out the overflow possibility (floating-point numbers are limited, not only in precision, but also in range), the returned value is also \(\circ(x \cdot \circ(1 - x))\). This o function is a unary operator related to the floating-point format and the rounding mode used for the computations. This is the form Gappa works on.

### First Gappa version¶

We first try to bound the result of the function. Knowing that `x`

is
in the interval `[0,1]`

, what is the enclosing interval of the
function result? It can be expressed as an implication: If `x`

is in
`[0,1]`

, then the result is in … something. Since we do not want to
enforce some specific bounds yet, we use a question mark instead of some
explicit bounds.

The logical formula Gappa has to verify is enclosed between braces. The
rounding operator is a unary function `float< ieee_32, ne >`

. The
result of this function is a real number that would fit in a IEEE-754
single precision (`ieee_32`

) floating-point number (`float`

), if
there was no overflow. This number is potentially a subnormal number and
it was obtained by rounding the argument of the rounding operator toward
nearest even (`ne`

).

The following Gappa script finds an interval such that the logical formula describing our previous function is true.

```
{ x in [0,1] -> float<ieee_32,ne>(x * float<ieee_32,ne>(1 - x)) in ? }
```

Gappa answers that the result is between 0 and 1. Without any help from the user, they are the best bounds Gappa is able to prove.

```
Results:
float<24,-149,ne>(x * float<24,-149,ne>(1 - x)) in [0, 1]
```

### Defining notations¶

Directly writing the completely expanded logical formula is fine for small formulas, but it may become tedious once the problem gets big enough. For this reason, notations can be defined to avoid repeating the same terms over and over. These notations are all written before the logical formula.

For example, if we want not only the resulting range of the function,
but also the absolute error, we need to write the expression twice. So
we give it the name `y`

.

```
y = float<ieee_32,ne>(x * float<ieee_32,ne>(1 - x));
{ x in [0,1] -> y in ? /\ y - x * (1 - x) in ? }
```

We can simplify the input a bit further by giving a name to the rounding operator too.

```
@rnd = float<ieee_32, ne>;
y = rnd(x * rnd(1 - x));
{ x in [0,1] -> y in ? /\ y - x * (1 - x) in ? }
```

These explicit rounding operators right in the middle of the expressions make it difficult to directly express the initial C code. So we factor the operators by putting them before the equal sign.

```
@rnd = float<ieee_32, ne>;
y rnd= x * (1 - x);
{ x in [0,1] -> y in ? /\ y - x * (1 - x) in ? }
```

Please note that this implicit rounding operator only applies to the
results of arithmetic operations. In particular, `a rnd= b`

is not
equivalent to `a = rnd(b)`

. It is equivalent to `a = b`

.

Finally, we can also give a name to the infinitely precise result of the function to clearly show that both expressions have a similar arithmetic structure.

```
@rnd = float< ieee_32, ne >;
y rnd= x * (1 - x);
z = x * (1 - x);
{ x in [0,1] -> y in ? /\ y - z in ? }
```

On the script above, Gappa displays:

```
Results:
y in [0, 1]
y - z in [-1b-24 {-5.96046e-08, -2^(-24)}, 1b-24 {5.96046e-08, 2^(-24)}]
```

Gappa displays the bounds it has computed. Numbers enclosed in braces are approximations of the numbers on their left. These exact left numbers are written in decimal with a power-of-two exponent. The precise format will be described below.

### Improved version¶

The bounds above are not as tight as they could actually be. Let us see how to expand Gappa’s search space in order for it to find better bounds. Not only Gappa will be able provide a proof of the optimal bounds for the result of the function, but it will also prove a tight interval on the computational absolute error.

#### Notations¶

```
x = rnd(xx); # x is a floating-point number
y rnd= x * (1 - x); # equivalent to y = rnd(x * rnd(1 - x))
z = x * (1 - x);
```

The syntax for notations is simple. The left-hand-side identifier is a name representing the expression on the right-hand side. Using one side or the other in the logical formula is strictly equivalent. Gappa will use the defined identifier when displaying the results and generating the proofs though, in order to improve their readability.

The second and third notations have already been presented. The first
one defines `x`

as the rounded value of a real number `xx`

. In the
previous example, we had not expressed this property of `x`

, which is a
floating-point number. This additional piece of information will help
Gappa to improve the bound on the error bound. Without it, a theorem
like Sterbenz’ lemma cannot apply to the `1 - x`

subtraction.

#### Logical formulas and numbers¶

```
{ x in [0,1] -> y in [0,0.25] /\ y - z in [-3b-27,3b-27] }
```

Numbers and bounds can be written either in the usual scientific decimal
notation or by using a power-of-two exponent: `3b-27`

means \(3
\cdot 2^{-27}\). Numbers can also be written with the C99 hexadecimal
notation: `0x0.Cp-25`

is another way to express the bound on the
absolute error.

#### Hints¶

Although we have provided additional information through the definition
of `x`

as a rounded number, Gappa is not yet able to prove the formula.
It needs another hint from the user.

```
z -> 0.25 - (x - 0.5) * (x - 0.5); # x * (1 - x) == 1/4 - (x - 1/2)^2
```

This rewriting hint indicates to Gappa that, when bounding the left-hand side, it can use an enclosure of the right-hand side. Please note that this rewriting rule only applies when Gappa tries to bound the left-hand side, not when it tries to bound a larger expression that contains the left-hand side as a sub-expression.

In some cases, Gappa might also need to perform a case split to prove the proposition. On this specific example, the
user does not have to provide the corresponding hint because the tool
automatically guesses that it should split the enclosure of `x`

into
smaller sub-intervals. If Gappa had failed to do so, the following hint
would have to be added:

```
y, y - z $ x; # not needed, as Gappa already guessed it
```

It indicates that Gappa should split the enclosure of `x`

until all the
enclosures pertaining to `y`

and `y - z`

in the proposition have been
proved.

#### Full listing¶

To conclude, here is the full listing of this example.

```
# some notations
@rnd = float<ieee_32, ne>;
x = rnd(xx); # x is a floating-point number
y rnd= x * (1 - x); # equivalent to y = rnd(x * rnd(1 - x))
z = x * (1 - x); # the value we want to approximate
# the logical proposition
{ x in [0,1] -> y in [0,0.25] /\ y - z in [-3b-27,3b-27] }
# hints
z -> 0.25 - (x - 0.5) * (x - 0.5); # x * (1 - x) == 1/4 - (x - 1/2)^2
```

Since Gappa succeeded in proving the whole proposition and there was no unspecified range in it, the tool does not display anything.

## Tang’s exponential function¶

### The algorithm¶

In *Table-Driven Implementation of the Exponential Function in IEEE
Floating-Point Arithmetic*, Ping Tak Peter Tang described an
implementation of an almost correctly-rounded elementary function in
single and double precision. John Harrison later did a complete formal
proof in HOL Light of the implementation in *Floating point verification
in HOL Light: the exponential function*.

Here we just focus on the tedious computation of the rounding error. We
consider neither the argument reduction nor the reconstruction part
(trivial anyway, excepted when the end result is subnormal). We want to
prove that, in the C code below, the absolute error between `e`

and
the exponential `E0`

of `R0`

(the ideal reduced argument) is less
than 0.54 ulp. Variable `n`

is an integer and all the other variables
are single-precision floating-point numbers.

```
r2 = -n * l2;
r = r1 + r2;
q = r * r * (a1 + r * a2);
p = r1 + (r2 + q);
s = s1 + s2;
e = s1 + (s2 + s * p);
```

Let us note `R`

the computed reduced argument and `S`

the stored
value of the ideal constant `S0`

. There are 32 such constants. For the
sake of simplicity, we only consider the second
constant: \(2^{\frac{1}{32}}\). `E`

is the value of the expression
`e`

computed with an infinitely precise arithmetic. `Z`

is the
absolute error between the polynomial \(x + a_1 \cdot x^2 + a_2
\cdot x^3\) and \(\exp(x) - 1\) for \(|x| \le \frac{\log 2}{64}\).

### Gappa description¶

```
a1 = 8388676b-24;
a2 = 11184876b-26;
l2 = 12566158b-48;
s1 = 8572288b-23;
s2 = 13833605b-44;
r2 rnd= -n * l2;
r rnd= r1 + r2;
q rnd= r * r * (a1 + r * a2);
p rnd= r1 + (r2 + q);
s rnd= s1 + s2;
e rnd= s1 + (s2 + s * p);
R = r1 + r2;
S = s1 + s2;
E0 = S0 * (1 + R0 + a1 * R0 * R0 + a2 * R0 * R0 * R0 + Z);
{ Z in [-55b-39,55b-39] /\ S - S0 in [-1b-41,1b-41] /\ R - R0 in [-1b-34,1b-34] /\
R in [0,0.0217] /\ n in [-10176,10176]
->
e in ? /\ e - E0 in ? }
```

Please note the way `Z`

is introduced. Its definition is backward:
`Z`

is a real number such that `E0`

is the product of `S0`

and the
exponential of `R0`

. It makes for clearer definitions and it avoids
having to deal with divisions.

```
Results:
e in [4282253b-22 {1.02097, 2^(0.0299396)}, 8768135b-23 {1.04524, 2^(0.0638374)}]
e - E0 in [-13458043620277891b-59 {-0.023346, -2^(-5.42068)}, 3364512538651833b-57 {0.023346, 2^(-5.42068)}]
```

Gappa is able to bound both expressions. While the bounds for `e`

seem
sensible, the bounds for `e - E0`

are grossly overestimated. This
overestimation comes from the difference between the structures of `e`

and `E0`

. To improve the bounds on the error `e - E0`

, we split it
into two parts: a round-off error and a term that combines both
discretization and truncation errors. The round-off error is expressed
by introducing a term `E`

with the same structure as `e`

but without
any rounding operator.

```
E = s1 + (s2 + S * (r1 + (r2 + R * R * (a1 + R * a2))));
```

So the round-off error is `e - E`

, while the other term is `E - E0`

.
As before, the expressions `E`

and `E0`

are structurally different,
so Gappa grossly overestimates the bounds of `E - E0`

. This time, we
introduce a term `Er`

with the same structure as `E0`

but equal to
`E`

. Since `Z`

has no corresponding term in `E`

, we insert an
artificial term `0`

in `Er`

to obtain the same structure.

```
Er = S * (1 + R + a1 * R * R + a2 * R * R * R + 0);
```

Finally, we tell Gappa how to compute `e - E0`

using `E`

and `Er`

.

```
e - E0 -> (e - E) + (Er - E0);
```

Note that, rather than using a hint, this equality could also have been indicated as a hypothesis of the logical formula.

### Full listing¶

```
@rnd = float< ieee_32, ne >;
a1 = 8388676b-24;
a2 = 11184876b-26;
l2 = 12566158b-48;
s1 = 8572288b-23;
s2 = 13833605b-44;
r2 rnd= -n * l2;
r rnd= r1 + r2;
q rnd= r * r * (a1 + r * a2);
p rnd= r1 + (r2 + q);
s rnd= s1 + s2;
e rnd= s1 + (s2 + s * p);
R = r1 + r2;
S = s1 + s2;
E = s1 + (s2 + S * (r1 + (r2 + R * R * (a1 + R * a2))));
Er = S * (1 + R + a1 * R * R + a2 * R * R * R + 0);
E0 = S0 * (1 + R0 + a1 * R0 * R0 + a2 * R0 * R0 * R0 + Z);
{ Z in [-55b-39,55b-39] /\ S - S0 in [-1b-41,1b-41] /\ R - R0 in [-1b-34,1b-34] /\
R in [0,0.0217] /\ n in [-10176,10176] ->
e in ? /\ e - E0 in ? }
e - E0 -> (e - E) + (Er - E0);
```

Gappa answers that the error is bounded by 0.535 ulp. This is consistent with the bounds computed by Tang and Harrison.

```
Results:
e in [8572295b-23 {1.0219, 2^(0.0312489)}, 4380173b-22 {1.04431, 2^(0.0625575)}]
e - E0 in [-75807082762648785b-80 {-6.27061e-08, -2^(-23.9268)}, 154166255364809243b-81 {6.37617e-08, 2^(-23.9027)}]
```

## Fixed-point Newton division¶

### The algorithm and its verification¶

Let us suppose we want to invert a floating-point number on a processor without a floating-point unit. The 24-bit mantissa has to be inverted from a value between 0.5 and 1 to a value between 1 and 2. For the sake of this example, the transformation is performed by Newton’s iteration with fixed-point arithmetic.

The mantissa is noted `d`

and its exact reciprocal is `R`

. Newton’s
iteration is started with a first approximation `r0`

taken from a table
containing reciprocals at precision \(\pm 2^{-8}\). Two iterations
are then performed. The result `r1`

of the first iteration is computed
on 16-bit words in order to speed up computations. The result `r2`

of
the second iteration is computed on full 32-bit words. We want to prove
that this second result is close enough to the infinitely precise
reciprocal `R = 1/d`

.

First, we define `R`

as the reciprocal, and `d`

and `r0`

as two
fixed-point numbers that are integer multiples of \(2^{-24}\)
and \(2^{-8}\) respectively. Moreover, `r0`

is an approximation of
`R`

and `d`

is between 0.5 and 1.

```
R = 1 / d;
{ @FIX(d,-24) /\ d in [0.5,1] /\
@FIX(r0,-8) /\ r0 - R in [-1b-8,1b-8] ->
... }
```

Next we have the two iterations. Gappa’s representation of fixed-point arithmetic is high-level: the tool is only interested in the weight of the least significant bit. The shifts that occur in an implementation only have an impact on the internal representation of the values, not on the values themselves.

```
r1 fixed<-14,dn>= r0 * (2 - fixed<-16,dn>(d) * r0);
r2 fixed<-30,dn>= r1 * (2 - d * r1);
```

The property we are looking for is a bound on the absolute error between
`r2`

and `R`

.

```
{ ... -> r2 - R in ? }
```

We expect Gappa to prove that `r2`

is \(R \pm 2^{-24}\).
Unfortunately, this is not the case.

```
Results:
r2 - R in [-1320985b-18 {-5.03916, -2^(2.33318)}, 42305669b-23 {5.04323, 2^(2.33435)}]
```

### Adding hints¶

With the previous script, Gappa computes a range so wide for ```
r2 -
R
```

that it is useless. This is not surprising: The tool does not know
what Newton’s iteration is. In particular, Gappa cannot guess that such
an iteration has a quadratic convergence. Testing for `r1 - R`

instead
does not give results any better.

Gappa does not find any useful relation between `r1`

and `R`

, as the
first one is a rounded multiplication while the second one is an exact
division. So we have to split the absolute error into two terms: a
round-off error we expect Gappa to compute, and the convergence due to
Newton’s iteration.

```
{ ... ->
r1 - r0 * (2 - d * r0) in ? /\ r0 * (2 - d * r0) - R in ? }
```

Gappa now gives the answer below. Notice that the range of the round-off error almost matches the precision of the computations.

```
Results:
r1 - r0 * (2 - d * r0) in [-1b-14 {-6.10352e-05, -2^(-14)}, 788481b-32 {0.000183583, 2^(-12.4113)}]
r0 * (2 - d * r0) - R in [-131585b-16 {-2.00783, -2^(1.00564)}, 131969b-16 {2.01369, 2^(1.00984)}]
```

So Gappa computes correct bounds for the round-off error, but not for the algorithmic one. We can help Gappa by providing an expression of the latter one. So we add a rule describing the quadratic convergence of Newton’s iteration:

```
r0 * (2 - d * r0) - R -> (r0 - R) * (r0 - R) * -d;
r1 * (2 - d * r1) - R -> (r1 - R) * (r1 - R) * -d;
```

Gappa answers that \(r_2 = R \pm 2^{-24.7}\).

```
Warning: the expression (d) has been assumed to be nonzero when checking a rewriting rule.
Results:
r2 - R in [-638882156545b-64 {-3.46339e-08, -2^(-24.7832)}, 32771b-44 {1.86282e-09, 2^(-28.9999)}]
```

While the answer is the expected one, there is this warning message
about `d`

possibly being zero. Indeed, `R`

is the reciprocal of
`d`

and we are using the fact that `R * d = 1`

. So the rewriting
rules cannot be proved on their own. (But they can be proved in the
context of the problem, so there is no correctness issue.) In order to
eliminate this warning, we can give the precise hypotheses such that the
left hand sides of the rewriting rules are equal to their right hand
sides without any other assumption. This is indicated at the end of the
rule.

```
r0 * (2 - d * r0) - R -> (r0 - R) * (r0 - R) * -d { d <> 0 };
```

When generating a script for an external proof checker, Gappa will add
this rewriting rule as a global hypothesis. For example, when selecting
the Coq back-end with the option `-Bcoq`

, the output contains the line
below.

```
Hypothesis a1 : (_d <> 0)%R -> r9 = r2.
```

In this hypothesis, `_d`

is the `d`

variable of the example, while
`r9`

and `r2`

are short notations for `r0 * (2 - d * r0) - R`

and
`(r0 - R) * (r0 - R) * -d`

respectively. In order to access the
generated proof, the user has to prove this hypothesis, which can be
trivially done with Coq’s `field`

tactic.

### Full listing¶

```
R = 1 / d;
r1 fixed<-14,dn>= r0 * (2 - fixed<-16,dn>(d) * r0);
r2 fixed<-30,dn>= r1 * (2 - d * r1);
{ @FIX(d,-24) /\ d in [0.5,1] /\
@FIX(r0,-8) /\ r0 - R in [-1b-8,1b-8] ->
r2 - R in ? }
r0 * (2 - d * r0) - R -> (r0 - R) * (r0 - R) * -d { d <> 0 };
r1 * (2 - d * r1) - R -> (r1 - R) * (r1 - R) * -d { d <> 0 };
```

The answer is the same as before, since Gappa easily proves that `d`

is not zero.

```
Results:
r2 - R in [-638882156545b-64 {-3.46339e-08, -2^(-24.7832)}, 32771b-44 {1.86282e-09, 2^(-28.9999)}]
```

Another example of a Newton iteration is given in Why and Gappa.